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Monday, December 20, 2010

Hebrew/Chumash Resources Resource Guide

Title: Biblical Hebrew Language Resources
Click here to download PDF version

Description of the topic area:
Resources relevant for the study of the Hebrew language. This pathfinder includes a variety of resources at all levels of interest (basic, moderate, and advanced). Topics include: Biblical texts; Biblical Hebrew and grammar; development and study of ancient Hebrew; comparative linguistic studies; dictionaries and Hebrew learning aids. This pathfinder is by no means exhaustive but does provide an excellent beginning directory for reference questions related to the Hebrew Language, especially its use in the study of the Tanach (5 books of Moses, Writings, and Prophets). Some of the resources in this pathfinder are for English speakers and others are more suitable for those who are fluent in Hebrew. The level of Hebrew-knowledge appropriate to each resource has been noted in bold at the end of each annotation.

1-Richman, J. (2010). The Hebrew Language: Learn Hebrew Resources. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.hebrew-language.com/

The most extensive and best collection of Hebrew language resources available on the web. This is a massive pathfinder that includes hundreds of Hebrew-learning resources covering both modern and Biblical Hebrew. It includes text, audio, and video designed to aid Hebrew speaking, reading, and comprehension. Basic

2-Snuit. (2009). Holy texts (מגיד, ספרות הקודש). Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://kodesh.snunit.k12.il/tan/b0001.htm


Developed by an organization dedicated to increasing web-learning resources on the web for K-12 students, this website includes complete Hebrew versions of the Talmud, Midrash, Mishneh Torah, and Tosefta. Excellent resource for searching for Biblical information from primary sources. Advanced


3-Mechon Mamre. (2009). A Hebrew - English Bible According to the Masoretic text
and the JPS 1917 edition.
Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0.htm

A wealth of different translations from the Hebrew Bible, including English, French, and Aramaic in a variety of formats (with and without vowels, cantillation markings, etc.). This website also has free downloadable software for a searchable database of Talmud, Torah, and major commentaries. Basic-Intermediate

4-Shusterman, M. (n.d.). Online Torah Reading. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.beverlyhillschabad.com/torah-reading/TORAH-MENU.HTM


Audio and text (Hebrew only with cantillation marks) of public Torah readings. While the pronunciation is particular to Chabad, this website is useful for those preparing public Torah readings or wanting to learn how to properly intone words when reading on their own. In addition to the Chumash (5 books of Moses), readings also include Esther and Rosh Hoshanah. Basic-Intermediate

5- Rosenberg, A. J. (2010). The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm

Judaica Press partnered with Chabad online to make the complete Tanach (5 books, Writings, Prophets) available with Rashi’s commentary. Rashi is one of the foremost Biblical commentator on grammatical inconsistencies within Biblical literature and is now printed alongside most every copy of Hebrew primary texts. It is accessible for free here online. Basic-Intermediate

6- Melingo LTD. (2010). Morphix Dictionary. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://morfix.mako.co.il/

The simple interface of this thorough online dictionary allows you to search for the translations of Hebrew and English terms. Both Biblical and modern definitions are provided as well as an option to search for the Hebrew-Wikipedia entry of the term. Intermediate

7- Jewish National Library. (2010). Jewish National Library Digital Book Repository. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://aleph500.huji.ac.il/nnl/dig/books_hla.html

The Jewish National and University’s Digital Library contains some of the earliest and most important copies of treatises on Hebrew grammar. Many titles include the essential works of David Kimhi as well as other major writers on the Hebrew language (e.g., Eliezer Ben Yehuda, developer of modern Hebrew). Advanced

8- Parsons, J. J. (2010). Hebrew Grammar-דקדוק. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Grammar/grammar.html

One of the best websites on the entire web for learning the basics of Hebrew letters, grammar. Despite its name, it is an excellent resource for anyone (not just Christians) desiring to make an initial foray into the Hebrew language. A word of caution, this website is best only for simple grammar studies; many of the information and interpretations about the significance of Hebrew words/letters are incorrect. Basic


9- Kimhi, D. (2001). In Chomsky W. (Ed.), Hebrew Grammar (Mikhlol) / systematically presented and critically annotated by William Chomsky (W. Chomsky Trans.). (1st Paperback ed.). New York: Bloch.

One of Rashi’s contemporaries, David Kimhi (also known as the Radak) authored this quintessential work on Hebrew grammar that elucidated and canonized a number of different grammatical rules, including the division of Hebrew letters into short and long vowels as well as innovative understandings of grammatical tense[1]. This particular version is translated into English and updated from an earlier version. Advanced

10- Clark, M., & Hirsch, S. R. (1999). In Clark M. (Ed.), Etymological Dictionary of Biblical Hebrew (M. Clark Trans.). Jerusalem, Israel: Feldheim.

This specialized dictionary draws on the commentaries of the famous German Rabbi Hirsch to explain the unique relationships that can be discovered by examining Hebrew words from their three-letter word roots (shorashim). The dictionary provides multiple definitions for words through analysis based on these roots and provides citations from both the Torah and major commentaries. Intermediate

11- Encyclopedia Judaica (2007). In Berenbaum M., Skolnik F. (Eds.), (2nd ed.). Detriot: Macmillan USA.

Encyclopedia Judaica is widely known as the authoritative reference resource in Jewish studies. It contains a large number of different entries that provide a detailed overview of Hebrew grammar as well its historical development in different contexts. It also contains several useful charts and tables that extensively detail letters, vowels, and articulations. Intermediate

12- Unknown. (1997). In Kaplan A. (Ed.), Sefer Yetzira, The Book of Creation (A. Kaplan Trans.). (Revised ed.). York Beach, ME: Red Wheel / Weiser LLC.

Sefer Yetzirah details the metaphysical composition of the universe by discussing the significance and underlying meaning of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. This text is one of the earliest known commentaries on the Torah and serves as the basis for understanding how Hebrew letters connect and define religious meaning in Judaism (a large portion of this book can be previewed at Googlebooks). Intermediate

13- Uveeler, L., & Bronznick, N. (1998). Ha-Yesod: The fundamentals of Hebrew (Revised and Expanded ed.). New York: Feldheim.  

Hayesod is a Hebrew textbook that thoroughly explains the fundamental components of Hebrew grammar and builds on those through short, simple exercises. This book is best for individuals who want to teach themselves although it could also be used successfully as an optional text for university level classes. The textbook takes the learner from a beginner level through an intermediate-advanced level.


14-The Society for the Preservation of Hebrew Books. (2010). HebrewBooks.org. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.hebrewbooks.org


Vast digital library of full text Hebrew Books on a wide variety of Jewish-related topics. Advanced and special dictionaries and other linguistic studies are available by search (it may be best to use Google’s advanced search to search the site). Hebrewbooks.org an also be useful for finding rare texts and exemplary Hebraic works of different time periods. Intermediate-Advanced

15-The Society for the Preservation of Hebrew Books. (2010). HebrewManuscripts.org. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://hebrewmanuscripts.org/


Part of the Hebrewbooks.org project, this is currently a work-in-progress but includes a large collection of digitized texts from the Jewish Theological Seminary’s rare book room. This collection is useful for doctoral level scholarship and contains original documents that show and discuss the use of Hebrew language and grammar in a variety of different contexts (see http://blog.hebrewbooks.org/2010/11/announcing-new-website-for-hebrew.html). Advanced

16- EBSCO publishing. (n.d.). ATLA religion database online. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.atla.com/products/catalogs/catalogs_rdb.html


Available for use through EBSCO (check with your local library for subscription), searching this database of peer-reviewed religious journals provides access to thousands of articles about the Hebrew language in religious literature. The database culls articles from both Jewish / non-Jewish related sources as well as English/non-English periodicals and journals. Intermediate-Advanced

17- EBSCO Publishing. (n.d.). Jewish Studies Source database. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.ebscohost.com.libezproxy2.syr.edu/academic/jewish-studies-source

This database is available through EBSCO (check with your local library for subscription) and contains thousands of peer-reviewed articles on the study of the Hebrew language. It includes of a number of the most widely recognized Jewish Studies journals, including the Hebrew Studies journal. Results can be limited by language. Intermediate-Advanced

18- National Library of Israel, & Joel, I. (n.d.). Index of Articles on Jewish Studies Database. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://aleph3.libnet.ac.il/F/?func=find-b-0&local_base=rmb01&con_lng=eng

Referred to as RAMBI, this index of articles related to Jewish Studies provides both free and subscriber based full text versions of articles. Provided by the National Library of Israel, this index is useful for searching for scholarly and academic journal articles related to any area of Hebrew language studies. Intermediate-Advanced

19- Academy of the Hebrew Language. (n.d.). Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language-Ma'agarim. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://hebrew-treasures.huji.ac.il/

This website is a trial version of the Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language (Ma’agarim). The dictionary allows the searcher to look for Hebrew words contained in different Hebrew writings throughout history. Search options allow the searcher to look for the word root and the word itself and provides a concordance of all relevant historical documents in which the word occurs. Advanced

20- Ohr HaHochma. (2010). Otzar HaHochma-The World's largest Digital Library of Judaic Books. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.otzar.org/otzaren/eodot.asp  

Otzar HoHochma contains 47,000 scanned copies of different Judaica books (see website) spanning a broad array of topics, including Hebrew linguistics. This subscription database is available for both individuals and schools/libraries. Intermediate-Advanced
Sources for Ready Reference

1-Snuit. (2009). Holy texts (מגיד, ספרות הקודש). Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://kodesh.snunit.k12.il/tan/b0001.htm

Searchable database of entire Hebrew Bible. This website also includes complete Hebrew
versions of the Talmud, Midrash, Mishneh Torah, and Tosefta. Excellent resource for searching
for Biblical information form primary sources. Advanced

2-Melingo LTD. (2010). Morphix Dictionary. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://morfix.mako.co.il/

The simple interface of this thorough online dictionary allows you to search for the translations of both Hebrew and English terms. Both Biblical and modern definitions are provided as well as an option to search for the Hebrew-Wikipedia entry of the term. Intermediate

3- Clark, M., & Hirsch, S. R. (1999). In Clark M. (Ed.), Etymological Dictionary of Biblical Hebrew (M. Clark Trans.). Jerusalem, Israel: Feldheim.

This specialized dictionary draws on the commentaries of the famous German Rabbi Hirsch to explain the unique relationships that can be discovered by examining Hebrew words from their three-letter word roots (shorashim). The dictionary provides multiple definitions for words through analysis based on these roots and provides citations from both the Torah and major commentaries. Intermediate

4-Encyclopedia Judaica (2007). In Berenbaum M., Skolnik F. (Eds.), (2nd ed.). Detriot: Macmillan USA.

Encyclopedia Judaica is widely known as the authoritative reference resource in Jewish studies. It contains a large number of different entries that provide a detailed overview of Hebrew grammar its development over time and in different contexts. It also contains several useful charts and tables that extensively detail letters, vowels, and articulations. Intermediate

Sources for In-depth Information for the Casual User

5-Richman, J. (2010). The Hebrew Language: Learn Hebrew Resources. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.hebrew-language.com/

The most extensive and best collection of Hebrew language resources available on the web. This is a massive pathfinder that includes hundreds of Hebrew-learning resources covering both modern and Biblical Hebrew. It includes text, audio, and video designed to aid Hebrew speaking, reading, and comprehension. Basic.

6-Mechon Mamre. (2009). A Hebrew - English Bible According to the Masoretic text
and the JPS 1917 edition.
Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0.htm

A wealth of different translations from the Hebrew Bible, including English, French, Aramaic in a variety of formats (with and without vowels, cantillation markings, etc.). This website also has free downloadable software for a searchable database of Talmud, Torah, and major commentaries. Basic-Intermediate

7-Shusterman, M. (n.d.). Online Torah Reading. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.beverlyhillschabad.com/torah-reading/TORAH-MENU.HTM


Audio and text (Hebrew only with cantillation marks) of public Torah readings. While the pronunciation is particular to Chabad, this website is useful for those preparing public Torah readings or wanting to learn how to properly intone words when reading on their own. In addition to the Chumash (5 books of Moses), readings also include Esther and Rosh Hoshanah.

8-Rosenberg, A. J. (2010). The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm

Judaica Press partnered with Chabad online to make the complete Tanach (5 books, Writings, Prophets) available with Rashi’s commentary. Rashi is the foremost Biblical commentator on grammatical inconsistencies within Biblical literature and is now printed alongside most every copy of Hebrew primary texts. It is accessible for free online. Basic-Intermediate

9-Parsons, J. J. (2010). Hebrew Grammar-דקדוק. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Grammar/grammar.html

One of the best websites on the entire web for learning the basics of Hebrew letters, grammar. Despite its name, it is an excellent resource for anyone (not just Christians) desiring to make an initial foray into the Hebrew language. A word of caution, this website is best only for simple grammar studies; many of the information and interpretations about the significance of Hebrew words/letters are incorrect. Basic

10-Uveeler, L., & Bronznick, N. (1998). Ha-Yesod: The fundamentals of hebrew (Revised and Expanded ed.). New York: Feldheim.  

Hayesod is a Hebrew textbook that thoroughly explains the fundamental components of Hebrew grammar and builds on those through short, simple exercises. This book is best for individuals who want to teach themselves although it could also be used successfully as an optional text for university level classes. The textbook takes the learner from a beginner level through an intermediate-advanced level.

11-The Society for the Preservation of Hebrew Books. (2010). HebrewBooks.org. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.hebrewbooks.org

Vast digital library of full text Hebrew Books on a wide variety of Jewish-related topics. Advanced and special dictionaries and other linguistic studies are available by search (it may be best to use Google’s advanced search to search the site). Can also be useful for finding rare texts and exemplary Hebraic works of different time periods. Advanced

Sources for In-depth Information for a Scholar

12-Jewish National Library. (2010). Jewish National Library Digital Book Repository. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://aleph500.huji.ac.il/nnl/dig/books_hla.html

The Jewish National and University’s Digital Library contains some of the earliest and most important copies of treatises on Hebrew grammar. Many titles include the essential works of David Kimhi as well as other major writers on the Hebrew language (e.g., Eliezer Ben Yehuda, developer of modern Hebrew). Advanced

13-Kimhi, D. (2001). In Chomsky W. (Ed.), Hebrew Grammar (Mikhlol) / Systematically presented and critically annotated by William Chomsky (W. Chomsky Trans.). (1st Paperback ed.). New York: Bloch.


One of Rashi’s contemporaries, David Kimhi (also known as the Radak) authored this quintessential work on Hebrew grammar that elucidated and canonized a number of different grammatical rules, including the division of Hebrew letters into short and long vowels as well as innovative understandings of grammatical tense (see first footnote above for citation). This particular version is translated into English and updated from an earlier version. Advanced

14- Unknown. (1997). In Kaplan A. (Ed.), Sefer Yetzira, The Book of Creation (A. Kaplan Trans.). (Revised ed.). York Beach, ME: Red Wheel / Weiser LLC.

Sefer Yetzirah details the metaphysical composition of the universe by discussing the significance and underlying meaning of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. This text is one of the earliest known commentaries on the Torah and serves as the basis for understanding how Hebrew letters connect and define religious meaning in Judaism (a large portion of this book can be previewed at Googlebooks). Adavanced

15- EBSCO publishing. (n.d.). ATLA religion database online. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.atla.com/products/catalogs/catalogs_rdb.html


Available for use through EBSCO (check with your local library for subscription), searching this database of peer-reviewed religious journals provides access to thousands of articles about the Hebrew language in religious literature. The database culls articles from both Jewish / non-Jewish related as well as English/non-English periodicals and journals. Advanced

16- EBSCO Publishing. (n.d.). Jewish studies source database. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.ebscohost.com.libezproxy2.syr.edu/academic/jewish-studies-source

This database is available through EBSCO (check with your local library for subscription) and contains thousands of peer-reviewed articles on the study of the Hebrew language. It includes of a number of the most widely recognized Jewish Studies journals, including the Hebrew Studies journal. Results can be limited by language. Intermediate-Advanced

17-National Library of Israel, & Joel, I. (n.d.). Index of Articles on Jewish Studies Database. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://aleph3.libnet.ac.il/F/?func=find-b-0&local_base=rmb01&con_lng=eng

Referred to as RAMBI, this index of articles related to Jewish Studies provides both free and subscriber based full text versions of articles. Provided by the National Library of Israel, this index is useful for searching for scholarly and academic journal articles related to any area Hebrew language studies. Intermediate-Advanced

18-Academy of the Hebrew Language. (n.d.). Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language-Ma'agarim. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://hebrew-treasures.huji.ac.il/

This website is a trial version of the Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language –(Ma’agarim). This dictionary allows the searcher to look for Hebrew words contained in different Hebrew writings throughout history. Search options allow the searcher to look for the word root and the word itself and provides a concordance of all relevant historical documents in which the word occurs. Intermediate-Advanced

19-Ohr HaHochma. (2010). Otzar HaHochma-The World's largest Digital Library of Judaic Books. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://www.otzar.org/otzaren/eodot.asp  

Otzar HoHochma contains 47,000 scanned copies of different Judaica books (see website) spanning a broad array of topics, including Hebrew linguistics. This subscription database is available for both individuals and schools/libraries. Intermediate-Advanced

20-The Society for the Preservation of Hebrew Books. (2010). HebrewManuscripts.org. Retrieved 11/26, 2010, from http://hebrewmanuscripts.org/


Part of the Hebrewbooks.org project, this is currently a work-in-progress but includes a large collection of digitized texts from the Jewish Theological Seminary’s rare book room. This collection is useful for doctoral level scholarship and contains original documents that show and discuss the use of Hebrew language and grammar in a variety of different contexts (see http://blog.hebrewbooks.org/2010/11/announcing-new-website-for-hebrew.html). Advanced


[1] Jewish Encyclopedia.com (2002). David Kimhi (ReDak, surnamed Maistre Petit). Retrieved from http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=217&letter=K&search=kimchi#653 on 11/30/2010.

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